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The Six Pillars of Calculus

The Pillars: A Road Map
A picture is worth 1000 words

Trigonometry Review

The basic trig functions
Basic trig identities
The unit circle
Addition of angles, double and half angle formulas
The law of sines and the law of cosines
Graphs of Trig Functions

Exponential Functions

Exponentials with positive integer exponents
Fractional and negative powers
The function $f(x)=a^x$ and its graph
Exponential growth and decay

Logarithms and Inverse functions

Inverse Functions
How to find a formula for an inverse function
Logarithms as Inverse Exponentials
Inverse Trig Functions

Intro to Limits

One-sided Limits
When limits don't exist
Infinite Limits

Limit Laws and Computations

Limit Laws
Intuitive idea of why these laws work
Two limit theorems
How to algebraically manipulate a 0/0?
Indeterminate forms involving fractions
Limits with Absolute Values
Limits involving indeterminate forms with square roots
Limits of Piece-wise Functions
The Squeeze Theorem

Continuity and the Intermediate Value Theorem

Definition of continuity
Continuity and piece-wise functions
Continuity properties
Types of discontinuities
The Intermediate Value Theorem
Summary of using continuity to evaluate limits

Limits at Infinity

Limits at infinity and horizontal asymptotes
Limits at infinity of rational functions
Which functions grow the fastest?
Vertical asymptotes (Redux)
Summary and selected graphs

Rates of Change

Average velocity
Instantaneous velocity
Computing an instantaneous rate of change of any function
The equation of a tangent line
The Derivative of a Function at a Point

The Derivative Function

The derivative function
Sketching the graph of $f'$
Notation and higher-order derivatives

Basic Differentiation Rules

The Power Rule and other basic rules
The derivative of $e^x$

Product and Quotient Rules

The Product Rule
The Quotient Rule

Derivatives of Trig Functions

Necessary Limits
Derivatives of Sine and Cosine
Derivatives of Tangent, Cotangent, Secant, and Cosecant

The Chain Rule

Two Forms of the Chain Rule
Version 1
Version 2
Why does it work?
A hybrid chain rule

Implicit Differentiation

Derivatives of Inverse Trigs via Implicit Differentiation
A Summary

Derivatives of Logs

Formulas and Examples
Logarithmic Differentiation

Derivatives in Science

In Physics
In Economics
In Biology

Related Rates

How to tackle the problems
Example (ladder)
Example (shadow)

Linear Approximation and Differentials

An example with negative $dx$

Differentiation Review

How to take derivatives
Basic Building Blocks
Advanced Building Blocks
Product and Quotient Rules
The Chain Rule
Combining Rules
Implicit Differentiation
Logarithmic Differentiation
Conclusions and Tidbits

Absolute and Local Extrema

The Extreme Value Theorem
Critical Numbers
Steps to Find Absolute Extrema

The Mean Value and other Theorems

Rolle's Theorems
The Mean Value Theorem
Finding $c$

$f$ vs. $f'$

Increasing/Decreasing Test and Critical Numbers
Process for finding intervals of increase/decrease
The First Derivative Test
Concavity, Points of Inflection, and the Second Derivative Test
The Second Derivative Test
Visual Wrap-up

Indeterminate Forms and L'Hospital's Rule

What does $\frac{0}{0}$ equal?
Indeterminate Differences
Indeterminate Powers
Three Versions of L'Hospital's Rule


Another Example

Newton's Method

The Idea of Newton's Method
An Example
Solving Transcendental Equations
When NM doesn't work


Common antiderivatives
Initial value problems
Antiderivatives are not Integrals

The Area under a curve

The Area Problem and Examples
Riemann Sum Notation

Definite Integrals

Definition of the Integral
Properties of Definite Integrals
What is integration good for?
More Applications of Integrals

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Three Different Concepts
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2)
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1)
More FTC 1

The Indefinite Integral and the Net Change

Indefinite Integrals and Anti-derivatives
A Table of Common Anti-derivatives
The Net Change Theorem
The NCT and Public Policy


Substitution for Indefinite Integrals
Examples to Try
Revised Table of Integrals
Substitution for Definite Integrals

Area Between Curves

Computation Using Integration
To Compute a Bulk Quantity
The Area Between Two Curves
Horizontal Slicing


Slicing and Dicing Solids
Solids of Revolution 1: Disks
Solids of Revolution 2: Washers
More Practice


Here are steps to help you solve a related rates problem.

DO:  For each step, see if we used it in the previous example (copied below for your convenience).  This will help you visualize and remember the steps.  Did we skip any steps?

  1. Draw a picture!!  This always helps.

  2. Assign variables to all changing values. List everything you know: Which variables do you know about?  Which variable are you trying to figure out?

  3. Label your picture with variables and constants (to avoid confusion, do not assign names to constant values).

  4. Figure out how the variables are related, and write down an equation.  This is where you bring in knowledge from outside of calculus, typically geometry or physics.  If the variables represent two sides of a right triangle, use the Pythagorean theorem.  If the variables represent the radius and volume of a sphere, use the formula for volume in terms of radius.  You don't have to express one of the variables in terms of the other -- just find an equation that involves both.

  5. If there are more than two variables, find a relationship to eliminate one.

  6. Differentiate your equation(s) with respect to time.

  7. Solve for the rate of change of the variable you want in terms of the rate of change of the variable you already understand.

  8. If a variable assumes a specific value under some conditions (for example the velocity changes, but it equals 2 mph at 4 PM), replace it at this time. Remember to plug-in after differentiating.  (Why?)  Convert that information into an answer to your question.

Previous Example: A particle is moving clockwise around a circle of radius 5 cm centered at the origin.  As it passes through the point $(3,4)$, its $x$ position is changing at a rate of 2 cm per second.   How fast is $y$ changing at that instant?

Solution:  The rates of change (with respect to time $t$) mentioned in the example are the rates of change of the $x$-coordinate, $\frac{dx}{dt}$, and the $y$-coordinate, $\frac{dy}{dt}$.  Note that we will be trying to find $\frac{dy}{dt}$ at a particular moment in time, which is the moment that the particle is at the point $(3,4)$. 

We have found that our variables are $x$ and $y$, and we need to find a way to relate them.  In this problem, the relationship between $x$ and $y$ is given by the fact that they are coordinates on the circle, and that equation will relate them.  We know that the equation for the circle is $$x^2 + y^2 = 25.$$ To find the related rates, i.e. to find a relationship between the rates of change of $x$ and $y$ with respect to time, we can implicitly differentiate the equation above with respect to $t$. $$ 2 x \frac{dx}{dt} + 2 y \frac{dy}{dt} = 0.$$ This is the general relationship between the speed of $x$ and $y$.  When the particle is passing $(3,4)$, then its velocity is $\displaystyle{\frac{dx}{dt}\Big|_{(3,4)} = 2}$, $x=3$ and $y=4$, so we can solve for $\dfrac{dy}{dt}$ at this precise moment: $$ 2(3)(2) + 2(4)\frac{dy}{dt}\Big|_{(3,4)} = 0.$$ We have $\dfrac{dy}{dt}\Big|_{(3,4)}= -\frac{12}{8}=-\frac{3}{2}.$ 

We can now answer the question:  $y$ is changing at the rate of $-\frac{3}{2}$ cm/sec at that instant.