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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Three Different Concepts
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2)
The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1)
More FTC 1

The Indefinite Integral and the Net Change

Indefinite Integrals and Anti-derivatives
A Table of Common Anti-derivatives
The Net Change Theorem
The NCT and Public Policy


Substitution for Indefinite Integrals
Examples to Try
Revised Table of Integrals
Substitution for Definite Integrals

Area Between Curves

Computation Using Integration
To Compute a Bulk Quantity
The Area Between Two Curves
Horizontal Slicing


Slicing and Dicing Solids
Solids of Revolution 1: Disks
Solids of Revolution 2: Washers
More Practice

Integration by Parts

Integration by Parts
Integration by Parts with a definite integral
Going in Circles
Tricks of the Trade

Integrals of Trig Functions

Antiderivatives of Basic Trigonometric Functions
Product of Sines and Cosines (mixed even and odd powers or only odd powers)
Product of Sines and Cosines (only even powers)
Product of Secants and Tangents
Other Cases

Trig Substitutions

How Trig Substitution Works
Summary of trig substitution options
Completing the Square

Partial Fractions

Linear Factors
Irreducible Quadratic Factors
Improper Rational Functions and Long Division

Strategies of Integration

Integration by Parts
Trig Integrals
Trig Substitutions
Partial Fractions

Improper Integrals

Type 1 - Improper Integrals with Infinite Intervals of Integration
Type 2 - Improper Integrals with Discontinuous Integrands
Comparison Tests for Convergence

Differential Equations

Separable Equations
Mixing and Dilution

Models of Growth

Exponential Growth and Decay
Logistic Growth

Infinite Sequences

Approximate Versus Exact Answers
Examples of Infinite Sequences
Limit Laws for Sequences
Theorems for and Examples of Computing Limits of Sequences
Monotonic Covergence

Infinite Series

Geometric Series
Limit Laws for Series
Test for Divergence and Other Theorems
Telescoping Sums and the FTC

Integral Test

Road Map
The Integral Test
Estimates of Value of the Series

Comparison Tests

The Basic Comparison Test
The Limit Comparison Test

Convergence of Series with Negative Terms

Introduction, Alternating Series,and the AS Test
Absolute Convergence

The Ratio and Root Tests

The Ratio Test
The Root Test

Strategies for testing Series

Strategy to Test Series and a Review of Tests
Examples, Part 1
Examples, Part 2

Power Series

Radius and Interval of Convergence
Finding the Interval of Convergence
Power Series Centered at $x=a$

Representing Functions as Power Series

Functions as Power Series
Derivatives and Integrals of Power Series
Applications and Examples

Taylor and Maclaurin Series

The Formula for Taylor Series
Taylor Series for Common Functions
Adding, Multiplying, and Dividing Power Series
Miscellaneous Useful Facts

Applications of Taylor Polynomials

Taylor Polynomials
When Functions Are Equal to Their Taylor Series
When a Function Does Not Equal Its Taylor Series
Other Uses of Taylor Polynomials

Partial Derivatives

Visualizing Functions in 3 Dimensions
Definitions and Examples
An Example from DNA
Geometry of Partial Derivatives
Higher Order Derivatives
Differentials and Taylor Expansions

Multiple Integrals

What is a Double Integral?
Volumes as Double Integrals

Iterated Integrals over Rectangles

How To Compute Iterated Integrals
Examples of Iterated Integrals
Cavalieri's Principle
Fubini's Theorem
Summary and an Important Example

Double Integrals over General Regions

Type I and Type II regions
Examples 1-4
Examples 5-7
Order of Integration

How To Compute Iterated Integrals

Now that we know what double integrals are, we can start to compute them.  The key idea is to work with one variable at a time.

In order to integrate over a rectangle $[a,b] \times [c,d]$, we first integrate with respect to one variable (say, $y$) for each fixed value of $x$.  That's an ordinary integral, which we can compute using the fundamental theorem of calculus.  We then integrate the result over the other variable (in this case $x$), which we can also compute using the fundamental theorem of calculus.  So a 2-dimensional double integral becomes two ordinary 1-dimensional integrals, one inside the other.  We call this an iterated integral.

There are two ways to see the relation between double integrals and iterated integrals.  In the bottom-up approach, we evaluate the sum $$\sum_{i=1}^m\sum_{j=1}^n f\left(x_{i}^*,y_{j}\right)^* \,\Delta x\,\Delta y=\sum_{i=1}^m \left(\sum_{j=1}^n f\left(x_{i}^*,y_{j}^*\right) \,\Delta x\,\right) \Delta y,$$ by first summing over all of the boxes with a fixed $i$ to get the contribution of a column (as indicated with the parentheses on the second sum), and then adding up the columns.  (We could do this in the other order, by reversing the summations.)

$f\left(x_{i}^*,y_{j}^*\right)\, \Delta y\, \Delta x$ is the contribution of the volume of a tower over a single rectangle to our double integral, which approximates the volume under the surface $f(x,y) and over the rectangle.

$\displaystyle\left(\sum_{j=1}^n f\left(x_{i}^*,y_{j}^*\right) \,\Delta y\,\right) \Delta x$ is the sum of volumes of towers over all the rectangles in a single column, approximating the volume under the surface over the column.  Here, $\Delta x$ is the width of the column.  As $n \to \infty$, the sum over $n$ turns into an integral, and we get $$\displaystyle\left (\int_c^d f\left(x, y\right)\,dy \right )\, \Delta x.$$

Adding up the columns then gives $\displaystyle\sum_{i=1}^m \left (\int_c^d f\left(x_i^*, y\right)\, dy \right )\, \Delta x$.  Taking a limit as $m \to \infty$ turns the sum into an iterated integral, giving us the actual volume over the large rectangle, under the surface:$$\int_a^b \left ( \int_c^d f(x,y)\, dy \right ) \,dx.$$

This approach is explained in the following video, and an example is worked out. (Video Fix? However, there is a small error. At the beginning it says that we're going to integrate over the rectangle $[0,1] \times [0,2]$, but for the rest of the video the region $R$ is actually the rectangle $[0,2] \times [0,1]$.)