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The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Three Different Quantities
The Whole as Sum of Partial Changes
The Indefinite Integral as Antiderivative
The FTC and the Chain Rule
The Indefinite Integral and the Net Change
Indefinite Integrals and Antiderivatives
A Table of Common Antiderivatives
The Net Change Theorem
The NCT and Public Policy
Substitution
Substitution for Indefinite Integrals
Revised Table of Integrals
Substitution for Definite Integrals
Area Between Curves
The Slice and Dice Principle
To Compute a Bulk Quantity
The Area Between Two Curves
Horizontal Slicing
Summary
Volumes
Slicing and Dicing Solids
Solids of Revolution 1: Disks
Solids of Revolution 2: Washers
Volumes Rotating About the $y$axis
Integration by Parts
Behind IBP
Examples
Going in Circles
Tricks of the Trade
Integrals of Trig Functions
Basic Trig Functions
Product of Sines and Cosines (1)
Product of Sines and Cosines (2)
Product of Secants and Tangents
Other Cases
Trig Substitutions
How it works
Examples
Completing the Square
Partial Fractions
Introduction
Linear Factors
Quadratic Factors
Improper Rational Functions and Long Division
Summary
Strategies of Integration
Substitution
Integration by Parts
Trig Integrals
Trig Substitutions
Partial Fractions
Improper Integrals
Type I Integrals
Type II Integrals
Comparison Tests for Convergence
Differential Equations
Introduction
Separable Equations
Mixing and Dilution
Models of Growth
Exponential Growth and Decay
Logistic Growth
Infinite Sequences
Close is Good Enough (revisited)
Examples
Limit Laws for Sequences
Monotonic Convergence
Infinite Series
Introduction
Geometric Series
Limit Laws for Series
Telescoping Sums and the FTC
Integral Test
Road Map
The Integral Test
When the Integral Diverges
When the Integral Converges
Comparison Tests
The Basic Comparison Test
The Limit Comparison Test
Convergence of Series with Negative Terms
Introduction
Alternating Series and the AS Test
Absolute Convergence
Rearrangements
The Ratio and Root Tests
The Ratio Test
The Root Test
Examples
Strategies for testing Series
List of Major Convergence Tests
Examples
Power Series
Radius and Interval of Convergence
Finding the Interval of Convergence
Other Power Series
Representing Functions as Power Series
Functions as Power Series
Derivatives and Integrals of Power Series
Applications and Examples
Taylor and Maclaurin Series
The Formula for Taylor Series
Taylor Series for Common Functions
Adding, Multiplying, and Dividing Power Series
Miscellaneous Useful Facts
Applications of Taylor Polynomials
What are Taylor Polynomials?
How Accurate are Taylor Polynomials?
What can go Wrong?
Other Uses of Taylor Polynomials
Partial Derivatives
Definitions and Rules
The Geometry of Partial Derivatives
Higher Order Derivatives
Differentials and Taylor Expansions
Multiple Integrals
Background
What is a Double Integral?
Volumes as Double Integrals
Iterated Integrals over Rectangles
One Variable at the Time
Fubini's Theorem
Notation and Order
Double Integrals over General Regions
Type I and Type II regions
Examples
Order of Integration
Area and Volume Revisited


Monotonic Convergence
Some definitions:

A sequence is bounded if $a_n$ never grows beyond a fixed size $M$. In other words, there is a bound $M$ such that every term in the sequence has size less than $M$.

A sequence {$a_n$} is strictly increasing if each term is bigger than the previous term. That is, $a_{n+1} > a_n$. It is nondecreasing if $a_{n+1} \ge a_n$.

Strictly decreasing means $a_{n+1}< a_n$ for all $n$, and nonincreasing means $a_{n+1} \le a_n$.

If a sequence is either nonincreasing or nondecreasing, it is called monotonic.

A word of caution: The terms increasing and decreasing are dangerously ambiguous, since some authors use them to mean "strictly increasing" and "strictly decreasing", while others use them to mean "nondecreasing" and "nonincreasing".
Two important Theorems:

Monotonic Convergence Theorem: If a sequence is monotonic and bounded, if converges.
 Unboundedness Theorem: If a sequence is not bounded, it diverges.

Notice:
If a sequence is bounded but not monotonic, it might converge or it might diverge. For example,
 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, ... diverges
 $\displaystyle 1,\, \frac12,\, \frac13,\, \frac14,\, \frac15,\, \ldots$ converges.
