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#### The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Three Different Quantities
The Whole as Sum of Partial Changes
The Indefinite Integral as Antiderivative
The FTC and the Chain Rule

#### The Indefinite Integral and the Net Change

Indefinite Integrals and Anti-derivatives
A Table of Common Anti-derivatives
The Net Change Theorem
The NCT and Public Policy

#### Substitution

Substitution for Indefinite Integrals
Revised Table of Integrals
Substitution for Definite Integrals

#### Area Between Curves

The Slice and Dice Principle
To Compute a Bulk Quantity
The Area Between Two Curves
Horizontal Slicing
Summary

#### Volumes

Slicing and Dicing Solids
Solids of Revolution 1: Disks
Solids of Revolution 2: Washers
Volumes Rotating About the $y$-axis

Behind IBP
Examples
Going in Circles

#### Integrals of Trig Functions

Basic Trig Functions
Product of Sines and Cosines (1)
Product of Sines and Cosines (2)
Product of Secants and Tangents
Other Cases

#### Trig Substitutions

How it works
Examples
Completing the Square

#### Partial Fractions

Introduction
Linear Factors
Improper Rational Functions and Long Division
Summary

#### Strategies of Integration

Substitution
Integration by Parts
Trig Integrals
Trig Substitutions
Partial Fractions

#### Improper Integrals

Type I Integrals
Type II Integrals
Comparison Tests for Convergence

#### Differential Equations

Introduction
Separable Equations
Mixing and Dilution

#### Models of Growth

Exponential Growth and Decay
Logistic Growth

#### Infinite Sequences

Close is Good Enough (revisited)
Examples
Limit Laws for Sequences
Monotonic Convergence

#### Infinite Series

Introduction
Geometric Series
Limit Laws for Series
Telescoping Sums and the FTC

#### Integral Test

The Integral Test
When the Integral Diverges
When the Integral Converges

#### Comparison Tests

The Basic Comparison Test
The Limit Comparison Test

#### Convergence of Series with Negative Terms

Introduction
Alternating Series and the AS Test
Absolute Convergence
Rearrangements

The Ratio Test
The Root Test
Examples

#### Strategies for testing Series

List of Major Convergence Tests
Examples

#### Power Series

Finding the Interval of Convergence
Other Power Series

#### Representing Functions as Power Series

Functions as Power Series
Derivatives and Integrals of Power Series
Applications and Examples

#### Taylor and Maclaurin Series

The Formula for Taylor Series
Taylor Series for Common Functions
Adding, Multiplying, and Dividing Power Series
Miscellaneous Useful Facts

#### Applications of Taylor Polynomials

What are Taylor Polynomials?
How Accurate are Taylor Polynomials?
What can go Wrong?
Other Uses of Taylor Polynomials

#### Partial Derivatives

Definitions and Rules
The Geometry of Partial Derivatives
Higher Order Derivatives
Differentials and Taylor Expansions

#### Multiple Integrals

Background
What is a Double Integral?
Volumes as Double Integrals

#### Iterated Integrals over Rectangles

One Variable at the Time
Fubini's Theorem
Notation and Order

#### Double Integrals over General Regions

Type I and Type II regions
Examples
Order of Integration
Area and Volume Revisited

### Definitions and Rules

Partial derivatives help us track the change of multi-variable functions by dealing with one variable at the time.

DNA forms a double helix, but the curvature of this helix depends on the temperature and on the salinity (concentration of salt). If we wanted to understand the curvature, we would do experiments by varying the conditions and measuring the curvature each time. If we did our experiments well, we wouldn't try changing both the temperature and the salinity. We would first hold the salinity fixed and change the temperature. Once we understood how temperature affects curvature, we would run a second set of experiments, holding the temperature fixed and varying the salinity. Combining the results, we would understand how both temperature and salinity affect curvature.

Mathematically, the curvature is a function $f(x,y)$, where $x$ is the temperature and $y$ is the salinity. Varying the temperature means comparing $f(x,y)$ to $f(x+h,y)$, and we can ask for the rate of change. Varying the salinity means comparing $f(x,y)$ to $f(x,y+h)$. By taking limits, we can compute two kinds of derivatives:

 Definitions of partial derivatives: The partial derivative of $f$ with respect to $x$ is $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} \frac{f(x+h,y)-f(x,y)}{h}}.$$ The partial derivative of $f$ with respect to $y$ is $$\displaystyle{ \lim_{h \rightarrow 0} \frac{f(x,y+h)-f(x,y)}{h}}$$

There are many notations for partial derivatives. If $z = f(x,y)$, then $$\displaystyle f_x(x,y) = f_x = \frac{\partial f}{\partial x}= \frac{\partial}{\partial x}f(x,y) = \frac{\partial z}{\partial x}= f_1 = D_1 f= D_x f$$ and $$\displaystyle f_y(x,y) = f_y = \frac{\partial f}{\partial y}= \frac{\partial}{\partial y}f(x,y) = \frac{\partial z}{\partial y}= f_2 = D_2 f= D_y f$$

The rough and precise definitions of limits of functions of two (or more) variables work the same way:

 Rules for finding partial derivatives: To find $f_x$, hold $y$ constant and differentiate with respect to $x$. To find $f_y$, hold $x$ constant and differentiate with respect to $y$.

When computing $f_x$, we treat $y$ as a constant because it is a constant. After all, we are doing today's experiments at fixed salinity. This means that we can apply all of our familiar differentiation rules, pretending that the only variable is $x$.

 Example: Compute $f_x$ and $f_y$ when $f(x,y) = \sin(x+y^2)$. Solution: Since the derivative of $\sin(x + \hbox{ constant })$ with respect to $x$ is $\cos(x + \hbox{ constant })$, $$f_x = \cos(x+y^2).$$ Since the derivative of $\sin(\hbox{constant} + y^2)$ with respect to $y$ is $2y \cos(\hbox{constant }+y^2)$, $$f_y = 2y \cos(x+y^2).$$