The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

Three Different Quantities
The Whole as Sum of Partial Changes
The Indefinite Integral as Antiderivative
The FTC and the Chain Rule

The Indefinite Integral and the Net Change

Indefinite Integrals and Anti-derivatives
A Table of Common Anti-derivatives
The Net Change Theorem
The NCT and Public Policy


Substitution for Indefinite Integrals
Revised Table of Integrals
Substitution for Definite Integrals

Area Between Curves

The Slice and Dice Principle
To Compute a Bulk Quantity
The Area Between Two Curves
Horizontal Slicing


Slicing and Dicing Solids
Solids of Revolution 1: Disks
Solids of Revolution 2: Washers
Volumes Rotating About the $y$-axis

Integration by Parts

Behind IBP
Going in Circles
Tricks of the Trade

Integrals of Trig Functions

Basic Trig Functions
Product of Sines and Cosines (1)
Product of Sines and Cosines (2)
Product of Secants and Tangents
Other Cases

Trig Substitutions

How it works
Completing the Square

Partial Fractions

Linear Factors
Quadratic Factors
Improper Rational Functions and Long Division

Strategies of Integration

Integration by Parts
Trig Integrals
Trig Substitutions
Partial Fractions

Improper Integrals

Type I Integrals
Type II Integrals
Comparison Tests for Convergence

Differential Equations

Separable Equations
Mixing and Dilution

Models of Growth

Exponential Growth and Decay
Logistic Growth

Infinite Sequences

Close is Good Enough (revisited)
Limit Laws for Sequences
Monotonic Convergence

Infinite Series

Geometric Series
Limit Laws for Series
Telescoping Sums and the FTC

Integral Test

Road Map
The Integral Test
When the Integral Diverges
When the Integral Converges

Comparison Tests

The Basic Comparison Test
The Limit Comparison Test

Convergence of Series with Negative Terms

Alternating Series and the AS Test
Absolute Convergence

The Ratio and Root Tests

The Ratio Test
The Root Test

Strategies for testing Series

List of Major Convergence Tests

Power Series

Radius and Interval of Convergence
Finding the Interval of Convergence
Other Power Series

Representing Functions as Power Series

Functions as Power Series
Derivatives and Integrals of Power Series
Applications and Examples

Taylor and Maclaurin Series

The Formula for Taylor Series
Taylor Series for Common Functions
Adding, Multiplying, and Dividing Power Series
Miscellaneous Useful Facts

Applications of Taylor Polynomials

What are Taylor Polynomials?
How Accurate are Taylor Polynomials?
What can go Wrong?
Other Uses of Taylor Polynomials

Partial Derivatives

Definitions and Rules
The Geometry of Partial Derivatives
Higher Order Derivatives
Differentials and Taylor Expansions

Multiple Integrals

What is a Double Integral?
Volumes as Double Integrals

Iterated Integrals over Rectangles

One Variable at the Time
Fubini's Theorem
Notation and Order

Double Integrals over General Regions

Type I and Type II regions
Order of Integration
Area and Volume Revisited

Notation and Order

Let's review our notation for the different kinds of integrals:

  • $\displaystyle{\iint_R f(x,y) \, dA}$ is the double integral of $f(x,y)$ over the region $R$.

  • $\displaystyle{\iint_R f(x,y) \, dx\, dy}$ and $\displaystyle{\iint_R f(x,y) \, dy \, dx}$ mean the exact same thing as $\displaystyle{\iint_R f(x,y) \, dA}$. The area of a little box is $\Delta A = \Delta x \,\Delta y = \Delta y\, \Delta x$, so the infinitesimal area is $dA = dx\, dy = dy\, dx$.

  • $\displaystyle{\int_a^b \int_c^d f(x,y)\, dy \, dx}$ is an iterated integral. We first treat $x$ as a constant and integrate $f(x,y) \,dy$ from $y=c$ to $y=d$. Call the result $g(x)$. It is a function of $x$ and describes how much stuff is in the column with that value of $x$. We then integrate $g(x)\, dx$ from $x=a$ to $x=b$.

  • $\displaystyle{\int_c^d \int_a^b f(x,y)\, dx \, dy}$ is an iterated integral where we first integrate over $x$ to get the contribution of a row, and then integrate over $y$ to add up all the rows.

  • In an iterated integral, the order of $dx$ and $dy$ tells you which variable to integrate first. When in doubt, draw parentheses: $$\int_a^b \int_c^d f(x,y) \, dy\, dx = \int_a^b \left ( \int_c^d f(x,y) \,dy \right )\, dx.$$

  • Fubini's Theorem says that you can evaluate double integrals by doing an iterated integral in either order, but sometimes one order is a lot simpler than the other.

In the following video, we go over notation (2 minutes) and work two example problems (4 minutes each). The first example involves integrating $6x^2y$ over the rectangle $[1,3] \times [0,2]$, and both orders of integration are equally easy. The second example involves integrating $x e^{xy}$ over the same rectangle, and one order turns out to be much easier than the other.